Rabies is an almost uniformly fatal neurologic illness caused by rabies virus which is typically transmitted by a bite from a rabid animal two main clinical forms, encephalitic and paralytic characteristic pathologic features include negri bodies, which are intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic inclusions found in neurons of the hippocampus and cerebellum. The virus is commonly transmitted via saliva that contaminates bites, scratches, and wounds, and, recently, via mucosal exposure. However, other routes have been implicated in the past, such as through mucous membranes of the mouth, conjunctiva, anus and genitalia. Rabies is a disease affecting all mammals, including man, caused by a virus that attacks the central nervous system, including the brain. Nevertheless, it has been shown that rabies virus can infect myocytes before the virus infection reaches neurons in the spinal cord or dorsal root ganglia 1, 2.
The acip rabies workgroup used an evidencebased process for consideration of a reduced vaccination regimen in human rabies pep. Enright 3 1 from the department of epidemiology and preventive medicine, school of veterinary medicine, university of california, davis, california 95616, u. To study the relationship of the cvs24 variants with respect to the pathogenesis of rabies, we first determined the pathogenicity of cvsb2c and cvsn2c separately in. It affects all warmblooded animals and the disease is prevalent throughout the. Jun 21, 2019 rabies is caused by a neurotropic virus of the family rhabdoviridae, genus lyssavirus, subgroup rabies virus. This difference in survival was not dependent on the presence of factors in the culture medium. Recent findings indicate that in addition to the rv g protein viral elements that regulate gene expression, especially expression of the l gene, are also likely to play a role in. Paris 1985 1985, 6 e, 373386 the pathogenesis and pathology of rabies virus infection by f. Human rabies is a disease with almost 100% fatal outcome death usually after seven to ten days from the start of the symptoms. Rabies virus, epidemiology, transmission and freeroaming cats. Fluorescent antibody fa techniques were used, and nerve tissues from infected mice, selected at timed intervals postinfection, were passaged further in mice. Rabies virus structure and pathogenesis learn microbiology. Rabies control units in india launched by agriculture ministry of india in 6th five year plan aiming 100%rabies free india by th 5 year plan 30 rabies control units where set up overall chargesenior officer of animal husbandry dept each unitveterinary surgeon,supervisor,10 dog catchers each unit provided with a diesel van.
Pathogenesis of rabies rabies is a viral disease which affects all mammals. These studies indicated that 4 vaccine doses in combination with rabies immune globulin rig elicited adequate. The virus is usually transmitted to humans by infected saliva through the bite of a rabid animal. They named human rabies hydrophobia, which means fear of water, a symptom shown by rabies victims. Up to 20% of dogs recovered without any supportive treatment. Rabies virus from inoculation in the left hind foot pad was detected by fa as.
The existence of subpopulations with different biological properties within the cvs24 strain of rabies virus has profound implications for the pathogenesis of rabies virus. Studies on the pathogenesis of rabies behaviour ofthe virus in the cns in the initial experiment, 50 mice were infected with 1600 ld50 by the intracerebral route. Special issue bats multidisciplinary approach to epizootiology and pathogenesis of bat rabies viruses in the united states j. Symptoms may include unexplained aggression, impaired locomotion, varying degrees of paralysis, and extreme depression or viciousness. Rabies is a zoonotic disease that remains an important public health problem worldwide and causes more than 70,000 human deaths each year. Rabies virus, epidemiology, transmission and freeroaming. Rv pathogenesis, like that of other viruses, is a multigenic trait. In contrast, cultures of puri ed hippocampal neurons showed apoptosis in over 90% of neurons within 3 days. Figure 1 depicts an idealized outline of dynamics of rabies virus pathogenesis in the presence and absence of pepmediated immune responses.
In contrast, cultures of puri ed hippocampal neurons showed apoptosis in over 90% of. Rabies is found throughout the world, with the exception of antarctica. Rabies is a zoonotic, fatal and progressive neurological infection caused by rabies virus of the genus lyssavirus and family rhabdoviridae. P comparative pathogenesis of rabies and rabieslike. Craig hooper,heather carbaugh,zhen fang fu,hilary koprowski, and bernhard dietzschold center for neurovirology, department of microbiology and immunology, thomas jefferson university. In developing countries, the primary source of transmission to humans is the dog. The mechanism of how rabies infection induces neurological dysfunction in the.
Rabies epidemiology, pathogenesis, public health concerns. The location and progress of rabies virus isolated from a coyote canis latrans was studied in experimentally infected mice. The presence of rabies virus in the central nervous system was first detected in the lumbar segment of the spinal cord. Pdf rabies epidemiology, pathogenesis, public health concerns. Investigations were made on the spread of fixed rabies virus after its inoculation into the rear footpads of rats. Rabies pathogenesis 268 ac jackson spinal cord cultures did not survive more than 2 days. The causative agent of rabies is rabies virus rv, a negativestranded rna virus of the rhabdovirus family.
Rabies virus is an enveloped, singlestranded rna virus with bullet shaped or rodshaped morphology. Rabies disease, etiology and pathogenesis veterinary office of. The dogs are the major reason behind this, approximately 99% human deaths caused by dogs bites. Due to their ubiquitous nature and spread through animal transport, fleas pose a worldwide risk for cats and dogs to become infected with bartonella spp. Author summary lyssavirus including rabies still causes devastating loss of human life every year and many of its victims are children under the age of 15. The results indicate conclusively that rabies virus is ordinarily transmitted from the site ofexposure to the central nervous system via the peripheral nerves but that. Pathogenesis of rabies virus infection in dogs clinical. Comparative pathogenesis of rabies in bats and carnivores, and implications for spillover to humans lineke begeman, corine geurtsvankessel, stefan finke, conrad m freuling, marion koopmans, thomas muller, tom j h ruigrok, thijs kuiken batacquired rabies is becoming increasingly common, and its diagnosis could be missed partly because its clinical. Early studies in rabies pathogenesis, which were performed in order to establish the pathways and rate of viral spread, involved amputation of the tail or leg of an animal proximal to the site of inoculation with a fixed or street wildtype strain of rabies virus. Immediately after challenge 32 ld50 of the injected virus were demonstrable in the brain, but 6 hours later no virus could be found there. The commonest mode of transmission in man is by the bite of a rabid animal or the contamination of scratch wounds by virus infected saliva. Acip, cdc, recommendations to prevent human rabies, vaccines, viral pathogenesis, surveillance in the united states, confirmed human cases in the u.
In most cases the disease is transmitted via the bite of rabid animals which shed infectious virus with their saliva. Novel role of sarm1 mediated axonal degeneration in the. Viral mechanisms that have evolved to minimise damage to the cns but. Studies of rabies pathogenesis began in 1804, when zinke took a small brush and transmitted rabies by swabbing the saliva of a rabid dog onto some fresh wounds he. Studies on the pathogenesis of fixed rabies virus in rats. The causative agent of rabies is rabies virus rv, a. Pathogenesis of rabies virus infection in dogs makonnen fekadu. Rabies transmission via transplanted neurologic tissues corneas and solid organs has also been documented. Use of a reduced 4dose vaccine schedule for postexposure. It is usually contracted through a bite from an infected animal, though transmission can occur if the virus is introduced onto any mucous membrane eyes, nose, mouth. Rabies is an avertable viral disease caused by the rabid animal to the warm blooded animals zoonotic especially human. Rabies is an almost invariably fatal disease that can present as classic furious rabies or paralytic rabies. The rabies virus encoded five proteins, namely glycoprotein, nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein and rna dependent rna transcriptase protein. Rabies is a zoonotic viral disease and it is transmitted by bites of a rabid animal.
Clinical stages of rabies can progress from incubation period 5 days. Recovery has been reported in only a few patients, most of whom were infected with bat rabies virus variants, and has been associated with promptness of host immune response and spontaneous immune virus clearance. Related articles, links transmission experiments with bat rabies isolates. Fleas play a major role in the transmission of bartonella, particularly in felines b. By far the predominant target of rabies virus infection in vivo is the neuron. Asaresult ofinvestigations carried outduringthe past 10years onthepathogenesis ofpoliomyelitis, it became essential to reconsider also the problem of the pathogenesis of rabies. The pathogenesis and pathology of rabies virus infection. The causative agent is rabies virus rv, a negativestranded rna virus of the. Rabies epidemiology, pathogenesis, public health concerns and advances in diagnosis and control. The door to studies of rabies pathogenesis was first opened in 1804 by zinke 3, who experimentally transmitted rabies by swabbing the saliva of rabid dogs onto.
By far the predominant target of rabies virus infection in vivo is the neuron 1. Pdf on sep 1, 2002, alan c jackson and others published rabies pathogenesis find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. The authors have investigated the spread of fixed and street strains of rabies virus from the site of injection to the central nervous system and salivary glands in various animal species. In addition, high titers of rabies virus can be produced in mucogenic acinary cells of the salivary glands during the final phase. But also other potential vectors for bartonella transmission, such as ticks and biting flies, have been identified. Manjunatha reddyd, shibani pandaa and kuldeep dhama a adivision of pathology, icarindian veterinary research institute, bareilly. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription.
Murphy division o viral diseases, centers for disease control, atlanta, ga 30333 usa after devoting four years to the study of rabies, pasteur said. Schematic of dynamics of rabies virus pathogenesis. The molecular biology of rabies consists of bullet shaped virus with helical symmetry that has a length of approximately 180 nm. Transmission and pathogenesis rabies bulletin europe. The causative agent is rabies virus rv, a negativestranded rna virus of the rhabdovirus family.
Manjunatha reddyd, shibani pandaa and kuldeep dhama a adivision of pathology, icarindian veterinary research institute, bareilly, uttar pradesh, india. Pdf rabies is a zoonotic, fatal and progressive neurological infection caused by rabies virus of the genus lyssavirus and family. The mechanism of how rabies infection induces neurological dysfunction in the host remains unclear. Rupprecht1 1 division of highconsequence pathogens and pathology, centers for disease control and prevention. Rabies is a severe viral infection of the brain and spinal cord that is transmitted by infected animals. Rabies occurs in more than 150 countries and territories. Introduction dogs are the principal transmitter of rabies to man and animals in most countries of africa, asia and south america, where they are.
Clinical stages of rabies can progress from incubation period 5. Pathogenesis of rabies infection, pathogenesis of rhabdoviruses. Review article rabies epidemiology, pathogenesis, public health concerns and advances in diagnosis and control. The role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of rabies the pathogenicity of rv correlates inversely with its capacity to induce neuronal apoptosis. When the virus is 1 introduced through a bite, it begins to replicate in the skin or muscle tissue. Rabies is a central nervous system cns disease that is almost invariably fatal. The greeks called rabies lyssa or lytta, which means frenzy or madness. Rabies typically has its greatest effect on the brain. Pathogenesis of rabies table 1 sparing effect of removing portions of sciatic andor saphenous nerves on outcome of infection in animals inoculated in the footpad with rabies virusa neurectomy sciatic nerve only sapherious nerve only sciatic and saphenous nerves controls mice guineapigs rats hamsters foxes dogs cvs s lep cvsstrain, pool 5 cvs cvs. It is the member of the family rhabdoviridae and the genus lyssavirus.
Get a printable copy pdf file of the complete article 1. Viral and rickettsial zoonoses branch, division of viral diseases, center for infectious diseases, centers for disease control. A better understanding of rabies pathogenesis may be helpful in making future advances in the therapy of human rabies. Rabies molecular virology, diagnosis, prevention and. Neuroinvasiveness and neurotropism are the main features that define the pathogenesis of rabies. The virus enters the body through transdermal inoculation i. In dogs showing signs, rabies was not invariably fatal. The dog is estimated to be responsible for more than 50,000 human deaths annually, posing an extremely serious public and animal health problem. Pathogenesis of rabies table 1 sparing effect of removing portions of sciatic andor saphenous nerves on outcome of infection in animals inoculated in the footpad with rabies virusa neurectomy sciatic nerve only sapherious nerve only sciatic and saphenous nerves controls mice guineapigs rats hamsters foxes dogs cvs s lep. Rabies is an acute, progressive viral encephalomyelitis that principally affects carnivores and bats, although any mammal can be affected. Comparative pathogenesis of rabies in bats and carnivores.372 332 49 1634 123 820 1503 449 232 317 460 924 1662 1093 505 1617 1127 87 156 284 271 1063 1166 1561 26 1348 846 926 1465 353 170 780 639 905 1428 680 1493 813 368 323 1030