Recently, there has been an increase in reports of hikikomori around the globe, and ukraine is not an exception. Though hikikomori has been regarded as a distinctively japanese phenomenon, several. The role of cultural context in the depressive disorder of hikikomori in rural japan maree sugai, tohoku university of community service and science, japan. However, deeper psychological aspects have not been well clarified. Hikikomori social withdrawal primary hikikomori psychological. Hikikomori, a japanese culturebound syndrome of social. Oct 15, 2012 the word hikikomori, the abnormal avoidance of social contact, has become increasingly wellknown. Characterizing parents and school staffs involvement with.
The role of japanese culture in psychological health. Prolonged social withdrawal in japan wiley online library. Electronic and manual literatures searches were used to. The relationship between taijin kyofusho, hikikomori, and shame a doctoral research paper presented to the faculty of the rosemead school of psychology biola university in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree doctor of psychology by levi edward cole august, 20. I took a course on crosscultural psychology, which broadened my knowledge of various psychological research and theories in this field. The hikikomori is acknowledged a uniquely japanese phenomenon. Norasakkunkit, at kyoto university, with his research comparing hikikomori in japan and social phobia in western cultures. On the contrary, studies starts from high school were social pressure starts affecting youngs.
Social withdrawal contributes to poor emotional, behavioural, social and occupational functioning. Also, in japan the education of the children is traditionally done by the mother, and the father may leave the problem. Manual, their symptoms cannot be attributed to any psychiatric ailment. Aug 20, 2018 we thank the members of the khj national federation of families with hikikomori persons in japan. An increasing number of young people are becoming socially and economically marginalized in japan under economic stagnation and pressures to be more globally competitive in a postindustrial economy. Tohoku university of community service and science, japan.
Hikikomori, a phenomenon of social withdrawal and isolation. Though the behavioral symptoms of neet and hikikomori can be differentiated, some. Hikikomori in japan is a widespread social problem. Lifetime prevalence, psychiatric comorbidity and demographic correlates of hikikomori in a community population in japan author links open overlay panel asuka koyama a yuko miyake a norito kawakami b masao tsuchiya b c hisateru tachimori a tadashi takeshima a the world mental health japan survey group, 20022006. An epidemiological study of hikikomori in a japanese community. Bulletin of the research and clinical center for child development, 29, 112.
Previous studies have associated hikikomori with a maladaptation to structural change, an emergent mental problem that needs new diagnosis. A psychosocial developmental model article pdf available in international journal of social psychiatry 591 november 2011 with 1,239 reads how we measure reads. A crosssectional study was designed to understand the impacts of hikikomori lifestyle on physical health. Though hikikomori has been regarded as a distinctively japanese. A form of severe social withdrawal, called hikikomori, has been frequently described in japan and is characterized by adolescents and young adults who become recluses in their parents homes, unable to work or go to school for months or years. Loneliness, avoidant personality, japanese culturerelated attachment style amae, and difficulty in expressing emotions are suggested to be related to hikikomori. Shunsuke nonaka is now at school of child psychology, tokyo future university. As it has not been reported from other parts of the world, hikikomori fulfills the criteria for a culturebound syndrome. The phenomenon of hikikomori social withdrawal and the. It is unclear whether it exists in other cultural contexts than asia. Individuals with hikikomori commonly have a history of psychiatric comorbidity, but idiopathic primary hikikomori also exists. Child psychology 2016 october 0607, 2016 october 0607, 2016 london, uk 2nd international conference on adolescent medicine and child psychology the role of cultural context in the depressive disorder of hikikomori in rural japan maree sugai tohoku university of community service and science, japan p. The development and expansion of individual psychology in japan despite having a huge impact and being partially incorporated in contemporary psychotherapies, the individual psychology of alfred adler, an integrated approach to counseling and psychotherapy, has developed and expanded in a limited fashion in japan.
Parent training in nonviolent resistance for adult entitled. The role of cultural context in the depressive disorder of hikikomori in rural japan maree sugai, tohoku university of. In japan, social withdrawal affecting adolescents and young adults has been conceptualised as a syndrome called hikikomori saito, 20. In general, the prevalence of hikikomori tendencies in japan may be encouraged and facilitated by three primary factors. Two types of mental psychological dysfunction in japan, taijin kyofusho often translated in english as social anxiety and hikikomori often translated in english as social withdrawal, are publicly and empirically acknowledged.
It was first introduced to the japanese lexicon in 1998 with the publication of tamaki saitos book, social withdrawal shakaiteki hikikomori. Review of studies about hikikomori epidemiological studies the number of hikikomori adolescents and young adults in japan is believed to range from 500,000 up to one million 3. One womans stomach told her that she would never have a child. Its too harsh to define a case of hikikomori on a child, i dont think its even possible, nor are studies of that particular group. Saito then goes on to outline the features of hikikomori based on surveys conducted in the 1980s, identifying hikikomori as primarily a male middleclass phenomenon with a strong connection to futoko school nonattendance. Aug 18, 2015 an increasing number of young people are becoming socially and economically marginalized in japan under economic stagnation and pressures to be more globally competitive in a postindustrial economy. Hikikomori have been described as loners or modernday hermits. The family and the dependent adult become involved in an interaction in which the very attempts to alleviate the problem may aggravate it. Hikikomori are not rigorously hermits who have a strong psychological or. Japan plays a major part as the context in which hikikomori was. The cognitive behavioral approach for families of individuals with hikikomori iwh places importance on assessing family interaction from a behavior theory. A preliminary crosscultural study of hikikomori and internet. The c u lra b ackgr ou nd f j p religions and beliefs estimates indicate that 84% to 96% of japanese people identify themselves as shintoist or buddhist.
This prevented the child from acquiring language skills, so she only made certain sounds in response to external stimuli. Hikikomori, a form of severe social withdrawal more than 6 months, has increasingly become a crucial issue especially among adolescents. Electronic and manual literature searches were used to. It also threatened to afflict her with seizures and kill her. Correspondence concerning this article should be sent to. It was first introduced to the japanese lexicon in 1998 with the publication of tamaki saitos book, social withdrawal. Hikikomori in contemporary japan stockholm university. Clarifying deeper psychological characteristics of hikikomori. At present no adequate measure exists that would support targeted assessment of the presence and severity of social withdrawal amongst adolescents. The phenomena of neethikikomori occupationalsocial. The phenomena of neet hikikomori occupationalsocial withdrawal have attracted global attention in recent years. Called hikikomori, it is wellknown to both the psychiatric community and. It has been studied first in japan and recently has increasingly drawn the attention of researchers and clinicians all over the world. Characteristics of family interaction of individuals with hikikomori.
So, the absence of social relationships that expose humans to quality interactions not only affects mood and behavior, but also cognitive health and motor skills. Hikikomori refers to both the phenomenon in general and the recluses themselves. We report a case from oman, in the southern part of arabia, with all the essential features of hikikomori. She didnt have any type of emotional stimulation nor socialization opportunities.
Electronic and manual literature searches were used to gather information on social withdrawal and hikikomori, including studies examining case definitions, epidemiology, and diagnosis. Though the behavioral symptoms of neet and hikikomori. Characteristics of family interaction of individuals with. Hikikomori, a form of acute social withdrawal, is becoming a silent epidemic in japan. Electronic and manual literatures searches were used to gather information on. Parent training in nonviolent resistance for adult. The word hikikomori, the abnormal avoidance of social contact, has become increasingly wellknown. The central metaphor of the book is the social problem known as hikikomori. In the first epidemiological study 4 of this phenomenon in 2003, the japanese ministry of health, labour. Participants were informed of the aims and methods of the present study and that their participation was completely voluntary. The phenomena of neet hikikomori occupationalsocial.
This study aims to connect attachment theory and hikikomori by using a culturally sensitive psychosocial developmental model that outlines the various stages of attachment throughout the developmental years. The aim of this study is to gain a better understanding of the perception of hikikomori amongst healthrelated students and professionals and to explore possible psychiatric conditions underlying hikikomori. Secure base script and psychological dysfunction in. Another girl was told to jump in front of a moving car. One of the earlier triggers for hikikomoris reclusion is failure in entering a high school or college. Dickie, professor of psychology, hope college, department of. In japan, there are over 120,000 potential students currently who have refused to go to school, so school refusal is a serious problem in the country the ministry of education. The importance of socialization for brain development. One example is hikikomori, a japanese culturebound syndrome in which socially withdrawn young adults confine themselves at home and refuse to leave the house for days or years teo and gaw, 2010. Development of 5day hikikomori intervention program for. Aug 07, 2019 genie was a child who was imprisoned by her parents until she was years old. A study on the epidemiology of hikikomori in a community. This kind of loneliness manifests most vividly in japan. A lack of socialization affects brain development in different ways.
Pdf hikikomori, a japanese culturebound syndrome of. A preliminary crosscultural study of hikikomori and. Tentative program reception time session 1 session 2. Top 5 uniquely unusual things in japan japan daily interesting. A total of 104 eligible hikikomori cases were recruited from the social services network of hong kong with a mean age of 19.
However, there is no gold standard method for the assessment of family interaction of iwh. It is followed by a discussion of psychologi cal problems in japan, approaches to counseling in japan, and a discussion of contemporary issues in clinical and counseling psychology. The role of cultural context in the depressive disorder of. Hikikomori, is it a culturereactive or culturebound. His perspective is that of an american developmental psychologist and educator who. Parenting practi ces seem to play a crucial role for childrens.
Why are japanese men locking themselves inside for years. Hikikomori acute social withdrawal is a social issue in japan that affects both the society and the lives of the individual sufferers. One of the earlier triggers for hikikomoris reclusion. Hikikomori is a japanese word for pull in that refers to a phenomenon of social withdrawal of adolescents and young adults. Social withdrawal syndrome was first described in japan as hikikomori, and defined as the state of confining oneself to ones house for more than 6 months and strictly limiting communication with.
A relatively large threemonth prospective study conducted by japanese child. Internet gaming disorder igd and hikikomori an extreme form of social reallife withdrawal, where individuals isolate themselves from society have both been suggested as mental disorders that require further clinical research, particularly among young adult populations. Hikikomori or hikikomori, literally pulling inward, being confined, i. Matthew bowker hikikomori as disfigured desire 21 japan and, to a lesser degree, worldwide since the year 2000. Thus we can estimate that approximately 232,000 households currently have a child with hikikomori in japan based on the total number of households in japan about 46 million and the total population about. Japanese parents narratives of social withdrawal, culture, medicine and psychiatry on deepdyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips. Regarding eligibility criteria, duration of the hikikomori period had to exceed six months. The majority of such cases of hikikomori are classifiable as a variety of existing diagnostic. Lifetime prevalence, psychiatric comorbidity and demographic correlates of hikikomori in a community population in japan. Aug 09, 2019 typically, hikikomori is defined as a state of social withdrawal combined with avoidance of major social interactions or responsibilities e. In order to prevent hikikomori, it is important to appropriately cope with school refusal in the early stages. Hikikomori is a recent phenomenon among young adults in which they isolate themselves from social contacts and responsibility for more than 6 months. Characterizing parents and school staffs involvement. The article discusses the problem of desocialization, namely, loneliness at a young age in relation to the hikikomori phenomenon.
Lifetime prevalence, psychiatric comorbidity and demographic. For confirming the content validity, two clinical psychologists the first and third. Hikikomori are young people who have not left their parental home for at least 6 months, have no friends, refuse to study and work and are not in contact with their closest relatives. Middle class affluence in a postindustrial society such as japan allows parents to support and feed an adult child indefinitely in the home. The development of hikikomori is often spurred by a history of aversive or traumatic childhood experience, for example, dysfunctions between parents or between a parent and a child ambivalent attachment and difficulties at school peer rejection. Hikikomori as a possible clinical term in psychiatry. Top 10 culturespecific illnesses and mental disorders. Its so damaging that it impacts and delays brain development in general, especially in the first years of life. Jun, 2019 hikikomori, a form of severe social withdrawal more than 6 months, has increasingly become a crucial issue especially among adolescents. Introduction the hikikomori syndrome hs consists of prolonged and severe social withdrawal. Secure base script and psychological dysfunction in japanese. Shunsuke nonaka, school of child psychology, tokyo future university, senjuakebono.
A number of recent empirical studies have emerged from japan. How japan created its own lost generation, by michael zielenziger, is a fascinating look at contemporary societal problems in japan. Estimates suggest that half a million japanese youths have become social recluses, as well as more than half a million middleaged individuals. The phenomena of neethikikomori occupationalsocial withdrawal have attracted global attention in recent years. On the family edit having a hikikomori in the family is often considered embarrassing, so usually it is acknowledged as an internal private matter of the family, and many parents wait for a long time before seeking help from a third party within the hikikomori support industry. Behavioral repertoire of families for coping with individuals. Japan has the highest incidence of pervasive developmental disorders, a group of disorders including autism and aspergers syndrome, in the developed world. Adult entitled dependence is a condition characterized by the extreme dependence of grown children on their family and by levels of dysfunction, seemingly excessive in light of their apparent capacity to function.1582 1167 1130 898 1195 1671 1212 398 479 902 697 599 997 1667 886 934 1628 478 609 136 1609 295 151 880 750 1154 525 964 64 48 158 533 703 698 293 770 972